Anatomy of a Generator
A diesel generator set (genset) is the combination of a diesel engine, alternator and supporting components, with the primary purpose of converting fuel (Diesel No.2) into electricity.
A diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber. This is in contrast to spark-ignition engines such as a petrol engine (gasoline engine) or gas engine (using a gaseous fuel as opposed to gasoline), which uses a spark plug to ignite an air-fuel mixture. The engine was developed by Rudolf Diesel in 1893.
The modern starter motor is either a permanent-magnet or a series-parallel wound direct current electric motor with a starter solenoid (similar to a relay) mounted on it. When current from the starting battery is applied to the solenoid, usually through a key-operated switch, the solenoid engages a lever that pushes out the drive pinion on the starter driveshaft and meshes the pinion with the starter ring gear on the flywheel of the engine, therefore crank it up.
A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device that is used to store rotational energy. Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia, and thus resist changes in rotational speed. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed. Energy is transferred to a flywheel by applying torque to it, thereby causing its rotational speed, and hence its stored energy, to increase. Conversely, a flywheel releases stored energy by applying torque to a mechanical load, which results in decreased rotational speed.
Flywheels have three predominant uses:
- Provide continuous energy when the energy source is not continuous. For example, flywheels are used in reciprocating engines because the energy source (torque from the engine) is not continuously available.
- Deliver energy at rates beyond the ability of an energy source. This is achieved by collecting energy in the flywheel over time and then releasing the energy quickly, at rates that exceed the capabilities of the energy source.
- Control the orientation of a mechanical system. In such applications, the angular momentum of a flywheel is purposely transferred to a load when energy is transferred to or from the flywheel.
Engine flywheel and alternator rotor rotate at the same speed and same direction
An alternator is an electromechanical device that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current. It may be called an AC, synchronous generator or generator end.
The rotor is the non-stationary part of a rotary electric motor, electric generatoror alternator, which rotates because the wires and magnetic field of the motor are arranged so that a torque is developed about the rotor’s axis. In some designs, the rotor can act to serve as the motor’s armature, across which the input voltage is supplied. The stationary part of an electric motor is the stator. Engine flywheel and alternator rotor rotate at the same speed and same direction.
The stator is the stationary part of a rotor system, found in an electric generator, electric motor and biological rotors.
Depending on the configuration of a spinning electromotive device the stator may act as the field magnet, interacting with the armature to create motion, or it may act as the armature, receiving its influence from moving field coils on the rotor.
Is a type of electrical connector where a wire is clamped down to metal by a screw. The wire is sometimes just stripped of electrical insulation at the end, and is bent in a U or J shape to fit around the shaft of the screw. Electricity is transported through cables into the alternator’s terminal block .
AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator):
is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level.
Control panel sends start signal to engine’s starter motor.
BREAKER (Circuit Breaker):
Is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect an individual household appliance up to large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
Is a type of rechargeable battery that supplies electric energy to power the starter motor and control panel of a generator.
Internal combustion engines are often cooled by passing a liquid called engine coolant through the engine block, where it is heated, then through the radiator itself where it loses heat to the atmosphere, and then back to the engine in a closed loop. Engine coolant is usually water-based, but may also be oil. It is common to employ a water pump to force the engine coolant to circulate, and also for an axial fan to force air through the radiator.
The fan blows the hot air out of the engine and towards the chambers where the coolant gets cooled.
A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act on the air. Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case.
A coolant is a fluid which flows through a device to prevent its overheating, transferring the heat produced by the device to other devices that use or dissipate it. An ideal coolant has high thermal capacity, low viscosity, is low-cost, non-toxic, and chemically inert, neither causing nor promoting corrosion of the cooling system. Some applications also require the coolant to be an electrical insulator.
SKID (SUBBASE FUEL TANK) :
A Skid mount is a popular method of distributing and storing machinery. The machinery at point of manufacture is permanently mounted in a frame or onto rails or a metal Pallet and often also includes de fuel tank. The equipment can then be easily and securely transported as and used as a unit.